Saturday, 22 September 2018

Evidence Mounts That Germs May Cause Alzheimer's

In the end it will be microbes’ bacteria, viruses and fungus found to be at the root of all disease and aging, and specifically Alzheimer’s, contends geneticist Dr. Rudolph “Rudy” Emile Tanzi.

“The two biggest threats to healthy aging have had to do with dealing with infection,” said Tanzi, who specializes in Alzheimer’s and the brain at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School. “Think about it. When we increased the lifespan from 35 to 50, it was by covering the sewers. When we increased the lifespan from 50 to 75, it was with the use of antibiotics. Now we are looking for viruses in all of the major life-threatening diseases of our time Alzheimer’s, cancer, Parkinson’s and guess what? Infection is now cropping up in all of them.”

And though evidence continues to mount that could prove his theory, Tanzi says scientists are just beginning to scratch the surface of the culprits that can trigger the spiral into Alzheimer’s disease.

Tuesday, 18 September 2018

Marijuana compound removes toxic Alzheimer’s protein from the brain

Salk Institute scientists have found preliminary evidence that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other compounds found in marijuana can promote the cellular removal of amyloid beta, a toxic protein associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
“Although other studies have offered evidence that cannabinoids might be neuroprotective against the symptoms of Alzheimer’s, we believe our study is the first to demonstrate that cannabinoids affect both inflammation and amyloid beta accumulation in nerve cells,” says Salk Professor David Schubert, the senior author of the paper.
THC is responsible for the majority of marijuana’s psychological effects, including the high, due to its natural pain-relieving properties.
Salk researchers have found that high levels of amyloid beta were associated with cellular inflammation and higher rates of neuron death. They demonstrated that exposing the cells to THC reduced amyloid beta protein levels and eliminated the inflammatory response from the nerve cells caused by the protein, thereby allowing the nerve cells to survive.
To discuss on more enthralling topics on Neurology, join the "7th International Conference on Neurology and Neuromuscular Diseases" that is slated on October 22-23, 2018 at Madrid, Spain. Submit your abstracts and be a speaker, visit:

Saturday, 15 September 2018

Chiari Malformation Type 1

Chiari Malformation Type 1 shows symptoms usually during late childhood or adulthood. This malformation occurs during fetal development and is characterized by downward displacement (more than four millimeters) of the cerebellar tonsils beneath the foramen magnum into the cervical spinal canal. This displacement may block the normal pulsations of CSF between the spinal canal and the intracranial space.

Headaches, which are often severe are the classical symptoms of Type 1 condition. This occurs generally after sudden coughing, sneezing or straining. People may also experience neck pain, dizziness, numbness and tingling in arms and feet, unsteady gait, difficulty swallowing, poor hand coordination, speech and vision problems.
As this type 1 occurs as the skull and brain are growing, signs and symptoms occur only during late childhood or adulthood. Depending on the symptoms present and severity, some individuals may not require treatment while others may require pain medications or surgery.


Wednesday, 12 September 2018

Hemiplegic Migraine

Hemiplegic migraine is a serious type of migraine headache, most symptoms of which mimics those of stroke. A person with hemiplegic migraine will experience weakness in one side of the body which causes temporary paralysis which doctors often call, hemiplegia. The weakness can involve face, arm, or legs along with numbness, tinlgling and needles. The person can experience speech and vision problems or confusion. This weakness may last from one hour to several days, but usually it goes within 24 hours. The head pain associated with migraine typically follows the weakness, but the headache may precede it or be absent.

There are two types of hemiplegic migraine- Familial Hemiplegic Migraine (FHM) and Sporadic Hemiplegic Migraine (SHM)

Causes: There are four genes related to familial hemiplegic migraine: CACNA1A, ATP1A2, SCN1A, and possibly PRRT2. These genes are related to channels on nerve membranes that control the movement of substances like sodium, calcium and potassium across the nerve. Mutations of these genes result in over-excitability of nerves.
People with Sporadic migraine will experience all the physical symptoms of FHM but doesn’t have a known familial connection.

To share and gain knowledge on the various aspects of neurology, join the "7th International Conference on Neurology and  Neuromuscular Diseases" that will be held on October 22-23, 2018 at Madrid, Spain. To know more, visit:

Tuesday, 4 September 2018

Modifiable risk factors for Late Onset Epilepsy

A study has shown that diabetes, hypertension and smoking may be the modifiable risk factors of Late Onset Epilepsy (LOE). LOE is the recurrent unprovokeed seizures occuring at the age of 60 or older.

The study in atherosclerosis risk patients showed that patients with hypertension at baseline had 30% higher risk of LOE, 9% higher risk in those who smoked and a 45% higher risk in those with diabetes.The study also showed that these risk factors may contribute to LOE even in the absence of stroke or dementia.

However, higher levels of physical activity decreased the risk by 10%, and moderate alcohol consumption – defined as 1-7 standard drinks per week – was associated with a 28% reduction.

Individuals who had one APOE4 allele showed a 46% higher risk, and those with two alleles showed a 2.57-fold higher risk. The APOE4 genotype is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, which is associated with epilepsy.

The researchers thus suggested that lifestyle modifications earlier in life could mitigate some of the risk factors associated with LOE.

Saturday, 1 September 2018

Complications of Chiari Malformation

Chiari Malformation is condition caused when a part of the brain tissue called cerebellar tonsils,  extends into the spinal canal through the foramen magnum. This occurs when the skull is abnormally small or the brain pushes it downwards. This condition is mostly congenital. It is a progressive disorder and may lead to serious complications like the following:
  • Hydrocephalus: It is the accumulation of excess cerebro spinal fluid in the brain and requires the placement of a flexible tube or shunt to divert the fluid to another area of the body.
  • Spina bifida: It is a condition where the spine or its covering is not fully developed. A part of the spine may be exposed causing serious conditions like paralysis. People with Chiari malformation type 2 usually have a form of spina bifida called myelomeningocele.
  • Syringomyelia: Some patients with Chiari malformation may have this condition, where a cavity or cyst (syrinx) forms within the spinal column.
  • Tethered cord syndrome:  This condition causes serious nerve and muscle damage in the lower body. It occurs when the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column is limited due to some tissue attachments. These tissue attachments may cause abnormal stretching of the spinal cord.

To share and gain knowledge on the various aspects of neurology, join the "7th International Conference on Neurology and  Neuromuscular Diseases" that will be held on October 22-23, 2018 at Madrid, Spain. To know more, visit:
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Friday, 24 August 2018

Myelocortical Multiple Sclerosis - The new subtype of Multiple Sclerosis

Researchers from the Cleveland Clinic have found a new subtype of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) called Myelocortical Multiple Sclerosis (MCMS). 
MS is a disease of the brain's white matter, where, the immune cells destroy the myelin sheath of nerve cells causing demyelination which eventually results in the death of neurons. This results in the irreversible disabilities in patients with MS.

The research findings reveal a new subtype of MS where there is no demyelination in the white matter of brain. MCMS was identical to traditional MS on MRI, where typical MS lesions where found.

However, MS lesions where present in brain tissues of both patients with traditional and MCMS in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord. But brain tissues of patients with MCMS showed lesions not in the white matter. 

MCMS brains did have reduced neuronal density and cortical thickness, which are hallmarks of brain degeneration also observed in traditional MS. Contrary to previous belief, these observations show that neuronal loss can occur independently of white matter demyelination.

Image result for myelocortical multiple sclerosis